Section 1

Genetics 1ARefers to the honey bee Genome Project; the Double Helix; Gene Pools, and Wing Venation.

Genetics 1Brefers to the Cell Nucleus; the Chromosome; DNA - the double helix; and the Gene.
Other points include complementary base-pairing, hydrogen bonding, the relationship between ribose
and 2'-deoxyribose, and the structure of a nucleotide.

Genetics 1Cintroduces some basic concepts: the gene, Genotype and Phenotype; the Chromosome Structure; Alleles; Dominant and Recessive Genes.

Genetics 1Dis about the mechanism of DNA Replication

Genetics 1Eintroduces DNA Expression - Protein synthesis; Transcription and Translation

Genetics 1Fcoding for amino acids and their structure; polypeptides

Genetics 1Gmutations - some examples

Genetics 1HMitochondrial DNA

Section 2

Genetics 2Ais about Crossing Over; and Meiosis.

Genetics 2BThe Complementary Sex Determiner (csd) Gene - Sex Alleles: Pepperpot or Shot Brood.

Genetics 2Cexplains the Genetics of the Drone, the Genetics of the Queen and Workers; and
Genetic Diversity in the Colony

Genetics 2Dlooks at Genetics and Hygienic Behaviour

Genetics 2EGenetics and Pheromones - Communication within the Colony

Genetics 2Fthe Genetic Structure of the Colony

Section 3

Genetics 3ALooks at the geographical distribution of the 4 honey bee species.

Genetics 3BExplains how the polypeptide melittin was used to provide evidence on the genetic relationship
between Apis mellifera mellifera and the other three honey bee species.

Genetics 3CEvolutionary Stages of the honey bee from a common ancestor

Genetics 3DAgents of evolution: gene pool, gene flow, genetic drift

Genetics 3EPrinciples of Natural Selection

Genetics 3FInvestigates the origins of Apis mellifera

Genetics 3GDistribution of Apis mellifera in Europe

Genetics 3HEcotypes and the local bee
Next page: Genetics 1A.
Genetics of the honey bee - Some Basic Principles for Beekeepers

Since the discovery of the structure of DNA by Crick and Watson in 1957 the study of genetics has been explosive. The honey bee has become a no.1 target the results of which are oft quoted in beekeeping lectures. Some of the terminology I am sure is lost on the audience. The pages below set out to offer a beginner’s guide to honey bee genetics. My working background was as a teacher and lecturer in chemistry so there is a somewhat bias towards the chemistry when it comes to simplifying honey bee genetics.

Diagrams have been used extensively to illustrate many of the ideas which in themselves are intrinsically difficult. Most of the illustrations are of my own design, but I have used certain ones from the internet some of which have been adapted. This has been acknowledged.

In the following pages (shown also in the drop-down menu above) some aspects of the genetics of the honey bee are explored.
The topic is divided into 3 Sections.
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