Morphometry 2
bee wing analysis
cubital index discordal shift results
The File menu is used to browse to the folder holding the wing images. These are imported one by one and each examined.

The scanned wing is firstly orientated (using the Image menu) so that a horizontal line could be draw through the radial cell cutting the two edges at their extremes. An easy way to get the radial cell horizontal is firstly to draw a line between the two extremes and to read off the angle to the horizontal given in the menu box. Secondly the wing is turned through this angle using Image>Transform>Rotate

Lines BC and AB were drawn in turn. [alt + d] makes the line permanent.

[alt +m] brings up the results box and the same function used when over the line put the attributes into the box. The results for the two lines are shown with the two lengths in the blue box. The cubital index is thus 48.754/27.166 = 1.794

The line EF was drawn at right angles to the horizontal line and placed so that it passed through the wing joint just below F. The line FD was drawn so that it cuts through the cell junction at D. [alt+ m] gives the attributes for this line. The angle (shown in red) is measured clockwise from the horizontal. The discordal shift is thus -3.726.

The results for each wing are placed in a spread sheet (shown above) in which the cubital index is calculated.

The results for the cubital index and the discordal shift as shown in the table (Hive 1) are plotted on a scattergram as proposed by John Dews. The red box shows the boundary to be expected for Apis mellifera mellifera. The horizontal purple line gives the mean value of the cubital index (ideally 1.7). The results for 4 colonies are shown below.
ImagJ menu
Morphometry on a Mac with ImageJ
ImageJ results
ImageJ is a free Open Source image processing and analysis program which runs in Java. It is a very sophisticated program but it is used here only to measure the attributes of 3 lines ! The menu is shown on the left. With the drawing line tool highlighted.
cubital index discordal shift scattergram
cubital index discordal shift scattergram
cubital index discordal shift scattergram
cubital index discordal shift scattergram
The object of this exercise (in 2012) was to try to obtain some evidence on the nature of my bees. On the whole most of the points fall within the red box which would indicate that the bees were in fact black bees. However only a small sample of bees was taken. On the next page results from 2014 are shown.
Next page - Morphometry 3
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